Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is a scavenger receptor that primarily binds and regulates oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Expression of LOX-1 is regulated by a feed-forward system stimulated by oxidized LDL (oxLDL), a major component of atherosclerosis. LOX-1 is a homodimer with a reactive backbone that can bind to a host of different ligands, including small molecules, and whole cells. LOX-1 is involved in many intercellular, intracellular, and molecular processes that are atherogenic. LOX-1 levels are elevated within atherosclerotic plaques and its expression is induced by proinflammatory cytokines. The ability of LOX-1 to bind many different ligands and control several atherogenic processes makes this receptor a likely vascular disease biomarker as well as an ideal choice for drug therapy aimed at preventing cardiovascular disease.
Keywords: Endothelium, lipids, reactive oxygen species, atherosclerosis, scavenger receptors, Class E, angiotensin II, hydroxymethylglutaryl- CoA reductase inhibitors, cytokines
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