Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are bone marrow-derived cells, contributing to endothelial cell regeneration of injured vessels as well as neovascularization of ischemic lesions. EPC levels and function are inversely correlated with cardiovascular risk factors, can predict the occurrence of adverse events and atherosclerotic disease progression. Ischemia and inflammation are the primary triggers for EPC mobilization and homing, however, vascular trauma, as it occurs during surgical procedures, has been demonstrated to stimulate EPC mobilization even in absence of tissue ischemia. The effect of angioplasty on EPCs is not well defined, mainly because of the different and sometimes contrasting clinical results, due to low numbers of patients enrolled and to lack of standardization in evaluating EPCs. Aim of this review is to report recent results on the effect of EPC mobilization and homing after angioplasty, attempting to summarize them in a comprehensive model. The effect on EPCs of different kind of stents and the potential use of new stents able to attract EPCs will be also described. Results obtained in patients undergoing angioplasty in different vascular districts (coronary, peripheral and carotid) will be shown, together with the correlation between circulating progenitor cells and restenosis.