An ideal antimicrobial should be not toxic and possess board spectrum antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal activity, excluding resistance and should affect pathogen-mediated damage of host physiology including immune, nervous and endocrine systems. With the purpose of a combination of nonspecific antimicrobial action of molecular and ionized iodine with systemic immune-modulating property of the negatively charged polysaccharides a complex drug of iodine and lithium on a template of a α-dextrin liquid crystal was designed. The physicochemical model of iodine-lithium-α-dextrin (ILαD) is based on the human blood and the stereochemistry of moving equilibred systems of dynamically balanced organic polymers conformation complexed with the iodine and lithium molecules. Here we reviewed the antibacterial, antiviral, immune-modulating and anti-inflammatory mechanisms in vivo and in vitro as well as pharmacokinetics, metabolism, chronic toxicity, cumulative properties, embryo toxicity and carcinogenicity of ILαD. Clinical efficacy, tolerability and safety of ILαD monotherapy have been evaluated in HIV-infected patients, administered intravenously for a total of 12 infusions in 4 cycles. ILαD therapy contributes to anti-HIV and anti-inflammatory effects, resolution of dermatological and neurological pathology and dramatically improves the quality of life reflecting on enhanced treatment adherence. ILαD appears to be safe and perspective for an adjuvant therapy of bacterial and viral infections, including HIV/AIDS, hypothyroid, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases for controlling pathogen production from infected cells, immune response, inflammation and metabolism.