Targeted Therapy for Advanced Prostate Cancer: Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway
Todd M. Morgan, Theodore D. Koreckij and Eva Corey
Affiliation: Department of Urology, 1959 NE Pacific, BB-1115, Box 356510, Seattle, Washington, 98195, USA.
Keywords: Prostate cancer, targeted therapy, PI3K, Akt, mTOR
A large number of novel therapeutics is currently undergoing clinical evaluation for the treatment of prostate cancer, and small molecule signal transduction inhibitors are a promising class of agents. These inhibitors have recently become a standard therapy in renal cell carcinoma and offer significant promise in prostate cancer. Through an understanding of the key pathways involved in prostate cancer progression, a rational drug design can be aimed at the molecules critical to cellular signaling. This may enable administration of selective therapies based on the expression of molecular targets, more appropriately individualizing treatment for prostate cancer patients. One pathway with a prominent role in prostate cancer is the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Current estimates suggest that PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling is upregulated in 30-50% of prostate cancers, often through loss of PTEN. Molecular changes in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway have been demonstrated to differentiate benign from malignant prostatic epithelium and are associated with increasing tumor stage, grade, and risk of biochemical recurrence. Multiple inhibitors of this pathway have been developed and are being assessed in the laboratory and in clinical trials, with much attention focusing on mTOR inhibition. Current clinical trials in prostate cancer are assessing efficacy of mTOR inhibitors in combination with multiple targeted or traditional chemotherapies, including bevacizumab, gefitinib, and docetaxel. Completion of these trials will provide substantial information regarding the importance of this pathway in prostate cancer and the clinical implications of its targeted inhibition. In this article we review the data surrounding PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibition in prostate cancer and their clinical implications.
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