PI3K is a large duel lipid and protein kinase that catalyzes phosphorylation of the 3-hydroxyl position of phosphatidylinositides (PIs) and plays a crucial role in the cellular signaling network. Inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3- kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway is a newly identified strategy for the discovery and development of certain therapeutic agents. Among the various subtypes of PI3K, class IA PI3Kα has gained increasing attention as a promising drug target for the treatment of cancer due to its frequent mutations and amplifications in various human cancers. Here, we discuss the insights gained so far relevant to the development of PI3K inhibitors for the treatment of human cancers. Emphasis is on the structure-activity relationship of PI3K inhibitors which bear the most significant PI3Kα inhibitory activities. We also highlight PI3K inhibitors that are currently under clinical trials for cancers.
Keywords: PI3K inhibitor, PI3Kα, anticancer, structure-activity relationship (SAR), clinical trial
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