One of the current problems in medicine research is the development of safe drugs for the treatment of neurological disorders. Furthermore, there is a close relationship between the process of aging and the appearance of neurological disorders, particularly Parkinsons disease and Alzheimers disease. Therefore, an ideal compound would have two characteristics: neuroprotective action and an anti-aging effect. The natural compound resveratrol is a suitable candidate for this purpose due to its low toxicity and antioxidant properties. In addition, recent research has shown that it has an anti-aging effect in rat, yeast, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Drosophila, although the mechanism involved in this process remains to be clarified. One hypothesis is that by activating Sirtuin 1, resveratrol modulates the activity of numerous proteins, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator-1α (PGC-1 alpha), the FOXO family, Akt (protein kinase B) and nuclear factor-κβ (NFκβ). This review summarises recent research on the molecular mechanisms through which resveratrol might exert its therapeutic effects via the interaction with Sirtuin 1, as well as other targets. In addition, we discuss the possibility of using resveratrol in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.