mTOR in Growth and Protection of Hypertrophying Myocardium

Author(s): Sundaravadivel Balasubramanian, Rebecca K. Johnston, Phillip C. Moschella, Santhosh K. Mani, William J. Tuxworth Jr., Dhandapani Kuppuswamy.

Journal Name: Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 7 , Issue 1 , 2009

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Abstract:

In response to an increased hemodynamic load, such as pressure or volume overload, cardiac hypertrophy ensues as an adaptive mechanism. Although hypertrophy initially maintains ventricular function, a yet undefined derailment in this process eventually leads to compromised function (decompensation) and eventually culminates in congestive heart failure (CHF). Therefore, determining the molecular signatures induced during compensatory growth is important to delineate specific mechanisms responsible for the transition into CHF. Compensatory growth involves multiple processes. At the cardiomyocyte level, one major event is increased protein turnover where enhanced protein synthesis is accompanied by increased removal of deleterious proteins. Many pathways that mediate protein turnover depend on a key molecule, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). In pressure-overloaded myocardium, adrenergic receptors, growth factor receptors, and integrins are known to activate mTOR in a PI3K-dependent and/or independent manner with the involvement of specific PKC isoforms. mTOR, described as a sensor of a cells nutrition and energy status, is uniquely positioned to activate pathways that regulate translation, cell size, and the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) through rapamycinsensitive and -insensitive signaling modules. The rapamycin-sensitive complex, known as mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), consists of mTOR, rapamycin-sensitive adaptor protein of mTOR (Raptor) and mLST8 and promotes protein translation and cell size via molecules such as S6K1. The rapamycin-insensitive complex (mTORC2) consists of mTOR, mLST8, rapamycin- insensitive companion of mTOR (Rictor), mSin1 and Protor. mTORC2 regulates the actin cytoskeleton in addition to activating Akt (Protein kinase B) for the subsequent removal of proapoptotic factors via the UPS for cell survival. In this review, we discuss pathways and key targets of mTOR complexes that mediate growth and survival of hypertrophying cardiomyocytes and the therapeutic potential of mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin.

Keywords: mTOR, Akt, PI3K, S6K, PKC, rapamycin, ubiquitination, cardiac hypertrophy

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Article Details

VOLUME: 7
ISSUE: 1
Year: 2009
Page: [52 - 63]
Pages: 12
DOI: 10.2174/187152509787047603

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