The use of cardiac imaging modalities has grown steadily, and cardiac nuclear studies constitute a large part of this number. Nuclear Cardiology is often mistakenly considered a synonym of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), but has broader applications, including metabolic imaging, innervation imaging, among other technologies. MPI has been a powerful diagnostic and prognostic tool in the assessment of patients for known or suspected CAD for decades, and is now increasingly used for the evaluation of the anti-ischemic effects of various therapies, according to changes in left ventricular perfusion defect size defined by sequential MPI. Neuronal dysfunction identified with iodine-123- metaiodobenzylguanidine may give information on prognosis in different disease conditions, such as after myocardial infarction, in diabetes and dilated cardiomyopathy. Molecular imaging may identify the predominant cellular population in the atherosclerotic plaque and help predict the likelihood of clinical events. Therefore, although its usefulness is well established, Nuclear Cardiology remains a moving science, whose roles keep in pace with evolving clinical needs and expectations.