A series of reports in the past decade have ascribed pro-angiogenic activity to several thyroid hormone analogues, including L-thyroxine (T4), 3,5,3-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) and diiodothyropropionic acid (DITPA). Model systems of angiogenesis have demonstrated that thyroid hormone-induced neovascularization is initiated at a cell surface receptor for the hormone on an integrin. The hormone signal is transduced within the cell by extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) into secretion of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and other vascular growth factors and consequent angiogenesis. Intact animal studies have shown that endogenous thyroid hormone supports blood vessel density in heart and brain and that thyroid hormone administration can induce angiogenesis in ischemic limbs.
Keywords: Thyroid Hormone, Angiogenesis, L-thyroxine (T4), diiodothyropropionic acid (DITPA), vascular growth factors, ischemic limbs, inotropic
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