Novel therapeutic strategies are urgently needed for the treatment of serious diseases caused by viral, bacterial and parasitic infections, because currently used drugs are facing the problem of rapidly emerging resistance. There is also an urgent need for agents that act on novel pathogen-specific targets, in order to expand the repertoire of possible therapies. The high throughput screening of diverse small molecule compound libraries has provided only a limited number of new lead series, and the number of compounds acting on novel targets is even smaller. Natural product screening has traditionally been very successful in the anti-infective area. Several successful drugs on the market as well as other compounds in clinical development are derived from natural products. Amongst these, many are macrocyclic compounds in the 1-2 kDa size range. This review will describe recent advances and novel drug discovery approaches in the antiinfective area, focusing on synthetic and natural macrocyclic compounds for which in vivo proof of concept has been established. The review will also highlight the Protein Epitope Mimetics (PEM) technology as a novel tool in the drug discovery process. Here the structures of naturally occurring antimicrobial and antiviral peptides and proteins are used as starting points to generate novel macrocyclic mimetics, which can be produced and optimized efficiently by combinatorial synthetic methods. Several recent examples highlight the great potential of the PEM approach in the discovery of new anti-infective agents.
Keywords: Macrocyclic compounds, antimicrobial peptides, anti-infectives, gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, anti-virals, protein epitope mimetics technology, CXCR4 inhibitor
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