The regulation of cellular reduction/oxidation (redox) balance is critically determined by several antioxidant systems such as the thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) which reduces disulfides on targeted proteins. In addition, intracellular Trx-1 exerts most of its antioxidant properties through scavenging of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, it acts as a cofactor for several enzymes and plays an important role in the regulation of redox-sensitive transcription factors. Several studies have reported that Trx-1 activity can be modulated by the interaction with vitamin D3-upregulated protein (VDUP-1) (also called Txnip for thioredoxin interacting protein-1 or TBP-2 for Trx-binding protein-2). Trx-1 secretion has been reported to occur in conditions associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. Beneficial effects of elevated plasma Trx-1 levels on various pathologies were reported in mice. In conclusion, oxidative stress is an important actor in various pathologies including cardio- and cerebro-vascular diseases. Therefore, controlling the redox status by increasing the activity of Trx-1 seems to be a novel and an attractive approach.
Keywords: Thioredoxin, oxidative stress, antioxidant, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases
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