Prostate cancer (CaP) is one of the most common malignancies in men, with an increasing incidence. Despite advances in surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy to treat CaP, many patients unfortunately succumb to metastatic disease. The progression of CaP from primary to metastatic disease is associated with a number of molecular and genetic changes. These changes can effect the expression of specific tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) or receptors on the cell surface. Current therapeutic options for patients with metastatic hormone-refractory CaP (HRPC) are very limited. Targeting cancer surface TAAs is a developing area, and may have a promising future for control of late stage and recurrent CaP disease. This review describes some important CaP TAAs including prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), MUC1, urokinase plasminogen activator and its receptor (uPA/uPAR), vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor (VEGF/VEGFR), extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN/CD147), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), platelet-derived growth factor and its receptor (PDGF/PDGFR) and c-kit (CD117). We summarize recent progress supporting the role of these TAAs in CaP progression and establish the potential therapeutic efficacy of TAAstargeted therapies in CaP.