Molecular cytogenetics is a promising field of biomedical research that has recently revolutionized our thinking on genome structure and behavior. This is in part due to discoveries of human genomic variations and their contribution to biodiversity and disease. Since these studies were primarily targeted at variation of the genome structure, it appears apposite to cover them by molecular cytogenomics. Human brain diseases, which encompass pathogenic conditions from severe neurodegenerative diseases and major psychiatric disorders to brain tumors, are a heavy burden for the patients and their relatives. It has been suggested that most of them, if not all, are of genetic nature and several recent studies have supported the hypothesis assuming them to be associated with genomic instabilities (i.e. single-gene mutations, gross and subtle chromosome imbalances, aneuploidy). The present review is focused on the intriguing relationship between genomic instability and human brain diseases. Looking through the data, we were able to conclude that both interindividual and intercellular genomic variations could be pathogenic representing, therefore, a possible mechanism for human brain malfunctioning. Nevertheless, there are still numerous gaps in our knowledge concerning the link between genomic variations and brain diseases, which, hopefully, will be filled by forthcoming studies. In this light, the present review considers perspectives of this dynamically developing field of neurogenetics and genomics.