Postprandial lipemia has emerged as an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. In this systematic review we examined the effect of the medications used for the management of diabetes, obesity and dyslipidemia on postprandial lipemia. It should be mentioned that no standardization exists for a test meal and for the duration of observation postprandially to allow for direct comparisons between the published studies. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance are associated with enhanced postprandial lipemia. Insulin is effective in reducing both fasting and post prandial total triglyceride levels as well as triglycerides contained in the triglyceride-rich lipoprotein sub-fractions. Additionally, the newer rapid-acting insulin analogues seem to be more effective in the reduction of postprandial lipemia than the short-acting human insulins. Acarbose ameliorates postprandial lipemia and reduces the atherogenic chylomicron and very low density lipoprotein remnants. Metformin reduces both fasting and postprandial triglyceridemia, fasting and postprandial free fatty acids and may increase the concentrations of the high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Sulfonylureas reduce fasting and postprandial triglyceride levels while data on the effect on high density lipoprotein levels are inconsistent. The effect of meglitinides on postprandial lipid metabolism is neutral. Rosiglitazone decreases fasting and postprandial free fatty acids but has no significant effect on fasting and postprandial triglycerides. Pioglitazone has additional beneficial effects on lipid metabolism because it reduces postprandial free fatty acids, fasting and postprandial triglycerides and increases high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Limited available data suggest that glucagon-like peptide- 1 analogues and vildagliptin reduce postprandial lipemia through reduction of intestinally-derived triglycerides. No data exist on the effect of sitagliptin on postprandial lipemia. Orlistat improves postprandial lipemia by reducing the absorption of the dietary fat; no data exist on the effect of sibutramine and rimonabant on the metabolism of lipids in the postprandial state.
Keywords: Postprandial lipemia, Chylomicron, Chylomicron remnant, Triglyceride-rich lipoprotein, Remnant-like particle, Apolipoproteins, Insulin, Metformin, Sulfonylureas, Glinides
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