Biopharmaceutics and Therapeutic Potential of Engineered Nanomaterials
Xing-Jie Liang, Chunying Chen, Yuliang Zhao, Lee Jia and Paul C. Wang
Affiliation: Division of Nanomedicine and Nanobiology, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology of China, Beijing 100190, and Lab. for Bio-Environmental Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, P.R. China.
Engineered nanomaterials are at the leading edge of the rapidly developing nanosciences and are founding an important class of new materials with specific physicochemical properties different from bulk materials with the same compositions. The potential for nanomaterials is rapidly expanding with novel applications constantly being explored in different areas. The unique size-dependent properties of nanomaterials make them very attractive for pharmaceutical applications. Investigations of physical, chemical and biological properties of engineered nanomaterials have yielded valuable information. Cytotoxic effects of certain engineered nanomaterials towards malignant cells form the basis for one aspect of nanomedicine. It is inferred that size, three dimensional shape, hydrophobicity and electronic configurations make them an appealing subject in medicinal chemistry. Their unique structure coupled with immense scope for derivatization forms a base for exciting developments in therapeutics. This review article addresses the fate of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of engineered nanoparticles in vitro and in vivo. It updates the distinctive methodology used for studying the biopharmaceutics of nanoparticles. This review addresses the future potential and safety concerns and genotoxicity of nanoparticle formulations in general. It particularly emphasizes the effects of nanoparticles on metabolic enzymes as well as the parenteral or inhalation administration routes of nanoparticle formulations. This paper illustrates the potential of nanomedicine by discussing biopharmaceutics of fullerene derivatives and their suitability for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Future direction is discussed as well.
Keywords: Metabolism, engineered nanomaterials, nanomedicine, fullerenol, carbon nanotube, titanium dioxide (TiO2), silica dioxide (SiO2), magnetic nanoparticles
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