Pyridinium aldoximes are used as antidotes to organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitors. All pyridinium aldoximes (oximes) are highly polar quaternary ammonium compounds showing low to minimal blood-brain-barrier (BBB) penetration. Oximes are separated using reversed-phase (RP) HPLC methods and/or thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The chemical structures, elementary compositions, molecular sizes and the calculated logP values of several mono- and bis-pyridinium aldoximes are given. Chromatographic and electrophoretic analyses of oximes are detailed, including the stationary and mobile phase composition and the mode of detection. Degradation pathways and products are also discussed. To characterize oximes lipophilicity/hydrophilicity an in silico method was used and expanded as to describe organophosphorus compound adducts with several pyridinium aldoximes.
Keywords: Pyridinium aldoximes, lipophilicity, chromatography, blood-brain-barrier penetration HPLC, blood
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