Invasive fungal infections are major complications of stem cell transplantation associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients are at a significantly greater risk for fungal infection than recipients of autologous transplantation. Although with the wide use of fluconazole prophylaxis the incidence and associated mortality of invasive candidiasis has been minimized, mold diseases remain a significant complication during periods of prolonged immunosuppression for graft versus host disease. Posaconazole prophylaxis during periods of high risk was recently demonstrated to be effective in preventing fungal infections and associated mortality. Preemptive strategy employing laboratory markers and serial CT scans to identify mold infection at an early stage is promising. However its efficacy has to be validated in clinical trials. Several new antifungal agents have been introduced lately, characterized by improved safety profile and broader antifungal spectrum. Voriconazole has become the standard of care for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis. Finally there has been increasing interest on combination therapy for invasive aspergillosis due to the high rate of failure of the currently available antifungals, especially in the profoundly immunocompromised host.
Keywords: Yeast, Mold, Candida, Aspergillus, Zygomycetes, Fusarium, Stem cell transplantation
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