This article is intended as an overview of bismuth-based electrodes as applied to electrochemical stripping analysis. These electrodes rely on a bismuth or bismuth-modified active surface and, while they have analytical performance comparable to mercury electrodes, are characterized by negligible toxicity in comparison to their mercury counterparts. These properties make them ideally suited as sensors for trace monitoring by electrochemical stripping analysis. Topics covered in this review are the main types of bismuth electrodes and their fabrication, the analytical characteristics and common interferences of bismuth-based electrodes in stripping analysis and typical applications of these sensors in industrial, food, clinical and environmental analysis by stripping techniques. Finally, the future prospects of bismuth electrodes in conjunction with stripping analysis are critically discussed.
Keywords: polarization, potentiometric stripping analysis, adsorptive stripping voltammetry, electroplating, mercury
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