Bacterial urinary tract infections (UTI) are frequently found in the outpatient as well as in the nosocomial setting. The bacterial UTI can be stratified into uncomplicated and complicated UTI. Antibiotic resistance is continuously increasing in uncomplicated as well as complicated UTI. In uncomplicated UTI efforts are made to use antibiotic substances exclusively for this indication. In complicated UTI as broad spectrum antibiotics are increasingly used, the higher the antimicrobial resistance rates are reported. There are two predominant aims in the antimicrobial treatment of both uncomplicated and complicated UTI: 1.) rapid and effective response to therapy, prevention of complications and prevention of recurrence in the individual patient treated, and 2.) prevention of emergence of resistance to anti-infective agents in the microbial environment. The use of antibiotics has to keep up with the continuous change in antimicrobial resistance and the tailored needs in the individual patient. Antibiotic substances therefore need to become evaluated for each indication and continuously followed for clinical usage. The knowledge of structure-activity relationships of antimicrobial substances and bacterial resistance mechanisms to antibiotics help to use antibiotics better in daily routine and design new derivatives and substances. The aim of this review is to describe the chemistry and structure-activity relationships of current antibiotics and promising substances in development for the treatment of UTI.
Keywords: Urinary tract infections, uncomplicated UTI, complicated UTI, antibacterial agents, antibiotics, antibiotic treatment, antibiotic resistance, structure-activity relationships, chemistry
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