Mycosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using the Fungus Fusarium acuminatum and its Activity Against Some Human Pathogenic Bacteria
We report extracellular mycosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by Fusarium acuminatum Ell. and Ev. (USM-3793) isolated from infected ginger (Zingiber officinale). An aqueous silver nitrate solution was reduced to metallic silver when exposed to F. acuminatum cell extract leading to the appearance of a brown color within 15-20 minutes. The color is due to the formation of silver nanoparticles and the excitation of surface plasmons. The optical spectrum showed the plasmon resonance at 420 nm and analysis by transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of silver nanoparticles. The nanoparticles produced were spherical with a broad size distribution in the range of 5-40 nm with average diameter of 13 nm. The reduction of the silver ions occurs probably by a nitrate-dependent reductase enzyme, which we found to be present in the extra-cellular medium. We tested the silver particles for their broad-band antibacterial activity on different human pathogens. We observed efficient antibacterial activity against multidrug resistant and highly pathogenic bacteria, including multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Escherichia coli. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles by the fungus F. acuminatum may therefore serve as a simple, cheap, eco-friendly, reliable and safe method to produce an antimicrobial material.
Keywords: Fusarium, Extracellular, Mycosynthesis, Nanoparticle, Antibacterial
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