Circulating Levels of VCAM and MMP-2 May Help Identify Patients with More Aggressive Prostate Cancer
Concetta De Cicco,
Maria Teresa Sandri,
Ottavio de Cobelli,
Background: Prostate adenocarcinoma is generally characterized by slow progression although some phenotypes have a more aggressive behavior with tendency to local invasion and distant metastases, mainly to bones. Better specific care could be provided to the aggressive phenotype-group of patients if pre-surgical identification were available. Material and Methods: Correlations between pre-surgical levels of 6 blood molecules and pathological tumour staging, post-surgical Gleason score and disease-free survival have been observed. Plasma and sera from 162 men affected by prostate adenocarcinoma were analysed with ELISA to assess levels of neovascularization-related molecule (VEGF), endothelial cell adhesion molecule (VCAM), extracellular matrix destruction- related molecules (MMP-2, MMP-9), and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2). Results: The median values of serum determinations were for VEGF 279 pg/ml, VCAM 633 ng/ml, MMP-2 206 ng/ml and MMP-9 614 ng/ml. Plasma medians (ng/ml) were 94 for TIMP-1 and 90 for TIMP-2. Patients with VCAM values > 633 ng/ml had a worse disease-free survival than patients with values < 633 ng/ml with an adjusted Hazard Ratio of 2.1, significant (95% confidence interval 0.8-5.6). Patients with levels of MMP-2 < 206 ng/ml showed an increased risk of progression (adjusted HR 1.7; 95% C.I. 0.6-4.8). Conclusions: Levels of VCAM and MMP-2 should be checked in patients with prostate adenocarcinoma, because distant spread is more likely to occur in patients with high levels of VCAM and low levels of MMP-2. The scientific community should further investigate impact on prognosis of VCAM and MMP-2.
Keywords: VCAM, MMP-2, blood marker, prostate cancer, bone metastasis, prognosis, VEGF, MMP, TIMP
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