Angioplasty and stenting have become routine practice for the treatment of significant obstructive atherosclerotic vascular disease. This method of revascularization has a longer history concerning coronary artery disease but is becoming an increasingly used modality of revascularization in the peripheral circulation. Neointimal formation is the pathological basis for restenosis after revascularization procedures such as angioplasty, stenting, and bypass grafting. While restenosis is less of a problem in the coronary circulation with the advent of drug-eluting stents, it continues to be a problem however in the peripheral arterial system. Current treatments to prevent restenosis include pharmacologic, mechanical and cellular approaches which we will discuss in this manuscript.