The goal of treatment in allergic rhinitis (AR) is to provide effective prevention of or relief from allergic rhinitis symptoms without adversely affecting daily activities or cognitive performance. Effective treatment of allergic rhinitis usually requires an integrated regimen that combines allergen avoidance measures, pharmacotherapy and possible specific- allergen immunotherapy. Oral corticosteroids are very effective but can have unwanted systemic effects. Over the past decade, intranasal corticosteroids have been shown to be the most effective form of pharmacologic treatment for allergic rhinitis. The newer nasal corticosteroids (NCS), offers significant advantages to the patient with AR. They are superior to both antihistamines and cromones and provide topical drug delivery that targets the actions of the drug molecules to the nasal mucosa to minimize the potential for systemic side effects. However, some clinicians remain reluctant to prescribe NCS for children because of their concern for systemic effects, including suppression of growth, of bone metabolism, and of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis.
Keywords: Allergic rhinitis, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics, nasal corticosteroid, systemic corticosteroids, adverse effects
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