Cellular FLICE-Like Inhibitory Protein (C-FLIP): A Novel Target for Cancer Therapy
Ahmad R. Safa,
Travis W. Day,
Cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) has been identified as a protease-dead, procaspase-8-like regulator of death ligand-induced apoptosis, based on observations that c-FLIP impedes tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Fas-L, and TNF-related apoptosis- inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis by binding to FADD and/or caspase-8 or -10 in a ligand-dependent fashion, which in turn prevents death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) formation and subsequent activation of the caspase cascade. c-FLIP is a family of alternatively spliced variants, and primarily exists as long (c-FLIPL) and short (c-FLIPS) splice variants in human cells. Although c-FLIP has apoptogenic activity in some cell contexts, which is currently attributed to heterodimerization with caspase-8 at the DISC, accumulating evidence indicates an anti-apoptotic role for c-FLIP in various types of human cancers. For example, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that specifically knocked down expression of c-FLIPL in diverse human cancer cell lines, e.g., lung and cervical cancer cells, augmented TRAIL-induced DISC recruitment, and thereby enhanced effector caspase stimulation and apoptosis. Therefore, the outlook for the therapeutic index of c-FLIP-targeted drugs appears excellent, not only from the efficacy observed in experimental models of cancer therapy, but also because the current understanding of dual c-FLIP action in normal tissues supports the notion that c-FLIP-targeted cancer therapy will be well tolerated. Interestingly, Taxol, TRAIL, as well as several classes of small molecules induce c-FLIP downregulation in neoplastic cells. Efforts are underway to develop small-molecule drugs that induce c-FLIP downregulation and other c- FLIP-targeted cancer therapies. In this review, we assess the outlook for improving cancer therapy through c-FLIP-targeted therapeutics.
Keywords: Taxol, apoptosis, caspase-8, caspase-10, c-FLIP, leukemia, death receptors
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