In highly developed countries like USA, approximately one out of 6 in the male population will expect to have prostate cancer in their life time. Chemoprevention is presumably one of most effective means to combat many types of cancer including prostate cancer (PCa). Because clinically significant PCa usually requires more than a decade to develop, therefore, it would be an ideal target for chemoprevention. This review will focus on recent findings of the most studied, naturally occurring, synthetic or semi-synthetic chemicals for potential use in preventing PCa. Newly discovered chemicals which show potential in preventative or therapeutic effects will be included. Molecular mechanisms and gene/pathway targets by which the above agents act on target cells will be briefly discussed. The recent findings on the chemicals possessing anti-androgen receptor, anti-DNA methyltransferase, or anti-histone deacetyltransferase activity will also be presented. It will further present some important issues regarding how the interactions of chemopreventing agents with genetic polymorphisms or epigenetic factors might affect anti-cancer effects of the agents. Related large trials, if appropriate, will also be discussed.
Keywords: Prostate cancer, dietary chemicals, chemoprevention, epigenetic, genetic polymorphism
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