Seizures have a variety of etiologies and manifestations. Descriptions of various epiletic seizures as well as electroencephalographic findings have led to a unifying international classification of epileptic seizures and epilepsy syndromes. The development of this classification system and the emergence of several new antiepiletic drugs have led to progress in the refractory pediatric patient particularly disorders which are traditionally difficult to treat such as infantile spasms and the Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome. However, there is limited data regarding optimal use in children. The childhood epilepsy syndromes are reviewed as well as the newer antiepileptic drug treatments felbamate, gabapentin, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, tiagabine, topiramate, and zonisamide. Efficacy data and toxicity are discussed from both the adult, and when available, pediatric data.
Keywords: Childhood epilepsy, Epileptic syndromes, Seizures, Felbamate, Gabapentin, Lamotrigine, Levetiracetam, Oxcarbazepine, Tiagabine, Topiramate, Zonisamide, Electroencephalographic, Antiepilepsy drugs, Neonatal syndromes, Symptomatic, Cryptogenic, Adolescence, Lennox gastaut syndrome, Partial Seizures, Kojenikows syndrome, Rasmussens syndrome, Landau kleffner syndrome, Generalized tonic clonic seizures
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