Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are an important class of medicinal agents useful for the treatment of Alzheimer ’ s disease, glaucoma, myasthenia gravis and for the recovery of neuromuscular block in surgery. To rationalize the structural requirements of AChE inhibitors we attempt to derive a coherent AChE-inhibitor recognition pattern based on literature data of molecular modelling and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analyses. These data are summarised from nearly all therapeutically important chemical classes of reversible AChE inhibitors, e.g., derivatives of physostigmine, tacrine, donepezil and huperzine A. Interactions observed from X-ray crystallography between these inhibitors and AChE have also been incorporated and compared with modelling and QSAR results. It is concluded that hydrophobicity and the presence of an ionizable nitrogen are the pre-requisites for the inhibitors to interact with AChE. However the mode of interaction i.e., the 3-dimensional (3D) positioning of the inhibitor in the active site of the enzyme varies among different chemical classes. It is also recognised that water molecules play crucial roles in defining these different 3D positioning. The information on AChE-inhibitor interactions provided should be useful for future discovery of new chemical classes of AChE inhibitors, especially from De Novo design and hybrid construction.
Keywords: molecular modelling, QSAR, revesibile acetylcholines terase inhibitors, acetylcholinesterase AChE inhibitors, medicinal agents, alzheimer s disease, glaucoma, myasthenia gravis, quantitative structure activity relationship, physostigmine, tacrine, donepezil, huperzine A, x ray crystallography, d dimensional 3D, interactions, De Novo design, calabar bean, neurotransmitter acetylcholine ACh, central nervous system CNS, molecular interactions, torpedo californica, electrophorus electricus, 9 amino 1 2 3 4 tetraydroacridin 1 ol analogues, benzylamines, morpholinoalkylcarbamoyloxyeseroline analogues, heptylphysostigmine, benzylpiperdines, huperzine A analogues
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