Receptor protein tyrosine kinases are usually activated upon binding their growth factors, or other suitable ligands, to their extracellular domains. These activated receptors initiate cytoplasmic signalling cascades which, when aberrant, can result in different disease states, such as oncogenic transformation. Many receptor protein tyrosine kinases use Src homology 2 domains (SH2) to couple growth factor activation with intracellular signalling pathways to mediate cell control and other biological events. The characterization of the components involved in these signal transduction pathways has resulted in the identification of new attractive targets for therapeutic intervention. Such is the case for the protein-protein interactions involving the SH2 domain of growth factor receptor bound protein 2 (Grb2). Agents that specifically disrupt Grb2-SH2 binding interactions involved in aberrant signalling could potentially shut down these oncogenic pathways and thus block human malignancies. This paper reviews the structural characteristics of the Grb2-SH2 domain and the approaches which have been used to identify antagonists of the Grb2-SH2 domain. Examples have been selected from our own research to illustrate how the unique structural features of the ligand-bound Grb2-SH2 have been exploited to design potent and selective Grb2-SH2 antagonists.