The majority of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections appear to be acquired during childhood. Despite this fact, the natural history of H. pylori infection in children, such as the mode of acquisition, the clinical symptoms and signs of infection and the appropriate treatment, is poorly understood. There is no consensus regarding which children with H. pylori infection deserve treatment nor is there agreement on the appropriate treatment regimen. This stems from the lack of controlled studies into H. pylori infection during childhood. For example, there have been no controlled studies to determine effective treatment of H. pylori infection in children. Although published guidelines for the treatment of childhood H. pylori infection do not currently exist, there is reasonable evidence to support treatment in children with gastric or duodenal ulcer, gastric MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma and atrophic gastritis. There is no strong evidence to recommend treatment of children with H. pylori infection and recurrent abdominal pain, asymptomatic infection, children in chronic care facilities and children who have a family member with H. pylori infection. Current evidence suggests that single and dual therapy regimens for H. pylori infection in children are not effective. “Triple therapy”, generally the combination of 2 antibiotics and a proton pump inhibitor, given two times daily for 2 weeks appears to offer the best current treatment.