Current Medicinal Chemistry

Atta-ur-Rahman, FRS
Honorary Life Fellow
Kings College
University of Cambridge
Cambridge
UK

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Towards 3D Structures of G Protein-Coupled Receptors A Multidisciplinary Approach

Author(s): Gerhard Muller.

Abstract:

Current strategies in pharmaceutical research comprise two methodologically different but complementary approaches for lead finding purposes, namely the random screening of compound libraries and the structure-based effort, commonly termed rational drug design. The structure-based approach is aimed to exploit 3D structure data of the molecular compo-nents involved in the molecular recognition event that underlies the attempt to therapeutically modulate the biological function of a macromolecular target with proven pathophysiological relevance for a disease state. In this context, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the most prominent family of validated drug targets within biomedical research, since approximately 60 percent of approved drugs elicit their therapeutic effects by selectively addressing members of that target family. From a 3D structure point of view, these transmembrane signal transduction systems represent the most challenging task for structure determination, which is due to the heterogeneous and fine-balanced environment conditions that are necessary for structural and functional integrity of the receptor protein. This contribution will address the different concepts to derive structurally relevant information on the transmemebrane seven-helix protein (7TM) domain of GPCRs with special emphasis laid on the multidisciplinarity of the applied methodologies. The current status of electron-cryo-microscopy on 2D crystals and even high-resolution x-ray crystallography on 7TM proteins will be introduced highlighting the transferability of the emerging structural principles onto the GPCR superfamily. Special techniques from bioinformatics and homology-related molecular modeling in combination with tailor-made protein simulation methodologies complement the experimentally derived data, in that they facilitate the 3D structure generation and structure validation process. This contribution summarises the most recent results of GPCR structure studies with the aim to underline the impact of structure data not only for the purpose of rationalising structure-activity data on low-molecular weight antagonists within the context of a protein binding pocket, but also for a better understanding of e.g. mutagenesis experiments, thus qualifying GPCR structure models as valid communication platforms establishing a functional link between molecular biology, biophysics, bioinformatics and organic chemistry in a highly efficient manner. This contribution summarises the most recent results of GPCR structure studies with the aim to underline the impact of structure data not only for the purpose of rationalising structure-activity data on low-molecular weight antagonists within the context of a protein binding pocket, but also for a better understanding of e.g. mutagenesis experiments, thus qualifying GPCR structure models as valid communication platforms establishing a functional link between molecular biology, biophysics, bioinformatics and organic chemistry in a highly efficient manner.

Keywords: G Protein Coupled Receptors, 3D structure data, GPCRs, transmembrane protein, Peptide, Lipid mediators, Rhodopsins, Bacteriorhodopsin, halobacterium salinarium, halobacterium halobium, lipid membrane morphylology, high resolution xray structure, Eukaryotic rhodopsin, Bovine rhodopsin, chemokine antatgonist, NK 1 substance P antagonist, NPY antagonist, growth hormone secretagogues antagonist, Calcitonin, vasopressin, domamine, opioid

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Article Details

VOLUME: 7
ISSUE: 9
Year: 2000
Page: [861 - 888]
Pages: 28
DOI: 10.2174/0929867003374534
Price: $58