Angiogenesis is the process by which new blood vessels are formed. This process supports normal physiology as well as contributes to progression of disease. Progressive rheumatoid arthritis and growth of tumors are two pathologies to which angiogenesis contributes. In arthritis, we know that prostaglandins (PGs) and the enzyme cyclooxygenase-2, which catalyses prostaglandin production, are inflammatory mediators. These mediators are involved in rheumatoid arthritis and cancer-induced angiogenic processes. We discuss, herein, recent findings on the expression of cyclooxygenases in both rheumatoid arthritis and human cancer, and the links between COX-2, PGs, and angiogenesis. We also propose a model for the possible mechanistic interaction of the various cell types involved in angiogenesis.