It has been previously demonstrated that aspartic, serine, metallo and cysteine proteases bind to their inhibitors and substrate analogues in a single conformation, the saw-tooth or extended beta-strand. Consequently a generic approach to the development of protease inhibitors is the use of constraints that conformationally restrict putative inhibitor molecules to an extended form. In this way the inhibitor is pre-organized for binding to a protease and does not need to rearrange its structure. One constraining device that has proven to be effective for such pre-organization is macrocyclization. This article illustrates the general principle that macrocycles, especially those composed of 3-4 amino acids and usually 13-17 ring atoms, can effectively mimic the extended conformation of short peptide sequences. Such structure-stabilising macrocycles are stable to degradation by proteases, valuable components of potent protease inhibitors, and in many cases they are also bioavailable.
Keywords: Macrocycles, Metallo Proteases, Protease enzymes, Activity, HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors, MACROCYCLIC, INHIBITORS, ASPARTIC PROTEASES, Renin
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