Osteoporosis is a disease characterised by low bone mass, structural deterioration of bone and increased risk of fracture. The prevalence, and cost, of osteoporosis is increasing dramatically with our ageing population and the World Health Organization now considers it to be the second-leading healthcare problem. All currently approved therapies for osteoporosis (eg., estrogen, bisphosphonates, calcitonin and selective estrogen receptor modulators) are anti-resorptive agents that act on osteoclasts to prevent further bone loss. A new class of bone anabolic agent capable of building mechanically strong new bone in patients with established osteoporosis is in development. While the parathyroid hormone (PTH) is classically considered to be a bone catabolic agent, when delivered intermittently at low doses PTH potently stimulates cortical and trabecular bone growth in animals humans. The native hPTH-(1-84) and its osteogenic fragment, hPTH-(1-34), have already entered Phase III clinical trials. Understanding the mechanism of PTHs osteogenic actions has led to the development of smaller PTH analogues which can also build mechanically normal bone in osteopenic rats. These new PTH analogues are promising candidates for treating osteoporosis in humans as they are as efficacious as hPTH-(1-84) and hPTH-(1-34), but there is evidence that they may have considerably less ability to induce hypercalcemia, the major side effect of PTH therapy. In addition to treating osteoporosis, PTHs may be used to promote fracture healing, to restore bone loss in immobilized patients, or following excessive glucocorticoid or prolonged spaceflight, and to treat psoriasis.
Keywords: Parathyroid Hormone, Osteoporosis, parathyroid hormone PTH, hPTH, bone mineral density BMD, ANTI RESORPTIVE THERAPIES, IGF I, PTH S ANABOLIC ACTIONS, rhPTH or Forteoa, rhPTH or ALX, Ostabolin C
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