Pax3 and the Splotch Mutations: Structure, Function, and Relationship to Teratogenesis, Including Gene-Chemical Interactions
Antonio F. Machado,
Lisa J. Martin,
Michael D. Collins.
The current review focuses on the malformations resulting from mutations in Pax3 and the interactions of Pax3 mutations with chemically induced teratogenesis, as well as other mutant genes or genetic strains, as a paradigm to illustrate the connections among genetics, protein function, and teratology. Splotch mice result from various mutations involving Pax3, and Waardenburg syndromes I and III in the human are due to mutations in PAX3. The human and murine phenotype/genotype correlations are thus compared and contrasted. The role of Pax3 in normal development, as well as the regulation of Pax3 expression and DNA binding, are also addressed on the premise that a mechanistic understanding of normal developmental processes is prerequisite to full comprehension of the mechanisms by which abnormal development is induced. Pax3 encodes a transcription factor involved in myogenesis, melanogenesis and neurogenesis, as well as regulating genes that may be involved in other cellular processes. The primary goal of this review is to examine the role of a single important developmental gene in the interaction of genetics and abnormal development.
Keywords: Pax3, Splotch Mutations, Teratogenesis, (Pax1-Pax9), Acropora, thioredoxin, Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs), PAX3 ISOFORMS, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)
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