The proton pump expressed on the plasma membrane of bone resorbing osteoclasts, and which mediates the acidification of the extracellular environment in resorption lacuna, belongs to the family of vacuolar H+-ATPases, which are enzymes ubiquitously distributed among all cells and are evolutionary conserved. These pumps have two functional domains: a peripherally associated cytoplasmatic section, and a proton channel composed of several subunits one of which, the 116 kDa subunit, is expressed exclusively in osteoclasts and confers unique functional and pharmacological properties to the osteoclast V-ATPase. It was demonstrated that inhibition of this pump can abolish bone resorption, therefore, osteoclast-selective inhibitors could provide novel and useful agents for the treatment of osteoporosis. This paper reviews the medicinal chemistry approaches that have allowed to obtain such new agents, most of which have been designed starting from the natural macrolide antibiotic bafilomycin A1, a potent and selective inhibitor of all V-ATPases. Identification of SAR and of minimal structural requirements for bafilomycin activity have allowed to obtain (2Z,4E)-5-(5,6-dichloroindolyl)-2-methoxy-N-(1,2,2,6,6-pentamethylpiperidin-4-yl)-2,4- pentadienamide (SB-242784) which inhibits the osteoclastic proton pump and bone resorption in vitro. Although it inhibits the activity of non-osteoclastic proton pumps as well, it appears to have reasonable selectivity and its administration for 6 months prevented the loss of femoral and vertebral BMD in ovariectomized rats, without any significant renal effects in control and acid-loaded animals. Other independent approaches that did not start from bafilomycin have led to the discovery of a different class of VATPase inhibitors, among which 4-(2,6-dichlorobenzoyl)amino-2-trifluoromethyl(benzoimidazol-1-yl)acetyl morpholine (FR177995) was the most effective in preventing bone resorption in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis. These compounds are of great pharmaceutical and medical interest because they allow to target a specific function of the osteoclast, however, only clinical trials might demonstrate whether they have significant advantages over other inhibitors of bone resorption for the treatment of osteoporosis.
Osteoclast, ATPase, lacuna, MACROLIDES
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