The Chemistry of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD) Analogues Containing C-Nucleosides Related to Nicotinamide Riboside 
Krzysztof W. Pankiewicz, Kyoichi A. Watanabe, Krystyna Lesiak-Watanabe, Barry M. Goldstein and Hiremagalur N. Jayaram
Affiliation: Pharmasset, Inc., 1860Montreal Road, Tucker, Atlanta, GA 30084, USA
Oncolytic C-nucleosides, tiazofurin (2-β-D-ribofuranosylthiazole-4- carboxamide) and benzamide riboside (3-β-D-ribofuranosylbenzamide) are converted in cell into active metabolites thiazole-4-carboxamide- and benzamide adenine dinucleotide, TAD and BAD, respectively. TAD and BAD as NAD analogues were found to bind at the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (cofactor NAD) site of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), an important target in cancer treatment. The synthesis and evaluation of anticancer activity of a number of C-nucleosides related to tiazofurin and nicotinamide riboside then followed and are reviewed herein. Interestingly, pyridine C-nucleosides (such as Cnicotinamide riboside) are not metabolized into the corresponding NAD analogues in cell. Their conversion by chemical methods is described. As dinucleotides these compounds show inhibition of IMPDH in low micromolar level. Also, the synthesis of BAD in metabolically stable bis(phosphonate) form is discussed indicating the usefulness of such preformed inhibitors in drug development. Among tiazofurin analogues, Franchetti and Grifantini found, that the replacement of the sulfur by oxygen (as in oxazafurin) but not the removal of nitrogen (tiophenfurin) of the thiazole ring resulted in inactive compounds. The anti cancer activity of their synthetic dinucleotide analogues indicate that inactive compounds are not only poorly metabolized in cell but also are weak inhibitors of IMPDH as dinucleotides.
Keywords: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide(nad), inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (impdh), cancer, benzamide riboside, c-nucleosides, nad analogues, methanosarcina thermophila, oxazinomycin, pyrazofurin, formycin a, adenosine kinase
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