Fanconi-Bickel Syndrome - A Congenital Defect of Facilitative Glucose Transport
Fanconi-Bickel syndrome (FBS, OMIM 227810) is a rare type of glycogen storage disease (GSD). It is caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations within GLUT2, the gene encoding the most important facilitative glucose transporter in hepatocytes, pancreatic b-cells, enterocytes, and renal tubular cells. To date, 112 patients have been reported in the literature. Most patients have the typical combination of clinical symptoms: hepatomegaly secondary to glycogen accumulation, glucose and galactose intolerance, fasting hypoglycemia, a characteristic tubular nephropathy, and severely stunted growth. In 63 patients, mutation analysis has revealed a total of 34 different GLUT2 mutations with none of them being particularly frequent. No specific therapy is available for FBS patients. Symptomatic treatment is directed towards a stabilization of glucose homeostasis and compensation for renal losses of various solutes. In addition to the clinical and molecular genetic aspects of FBS, this review discusses the pathophysiology of the disease and compares it to recent findings in GLUT2 deficient transgenic animals. An overview is also provided on recently discovered members of the rapidly growing family of facilitative glucose transporters, which are novel candidates for congenital disorders of carbohydrate metabolism.
Keywords: fanconi-bickel syndrome, facilitative glucose transport, glycogen storage disease, glucose transporter2 (glut2)
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