Haemopoietic progenitors mobilised into peripheral blood are now almost universally used in autologous haemopoietic stem cell transplantation in the treatment of a range of malignant and some nonmalignant disease. Although chemotherapy alone was initially used, all modern protocols now involve the use of cytokines, with or without chemotherapy. Important developments have included an in understanding of the importance of prior cancer therapy on progenitor yield, knowledge of the kinetics of mobilisation and development of necessary skills to collect and cryopreserve progenitors. More accurate measurement of haemopoietic progenitors and definitions of target cell yields for optimal haemopoietic recovery after highdose therapy have also contributed to more predictable outcomes and provide a reference point for newer mobilisation approaches. Although G-CSF based regimens are usually successful, some patients either fail to mobilise sufficient progenitors or require an excessive number of collections. Clinical studies with the early acting cytokine, stem cell factor, in combination with G-CSF have demonstrated increased progenitor yields in a range of patients which may translate to clinical benefit in selected situations. In animal models and to a lesser extent in humans, other cytokines such as thrombopoietin and Flt-3 ligand or a number of engineered small molecules with single or dual agonist activity for cytokine receptors (IL-3, Flt-3L, TPO, G-CSF), have also been found to be promising mobilising agents. Further research into the relative importance of cell proliferation, cellular adhesion and the role of accessory cells and other signalling events is leading to an improved understanding of the underlying mechanisms of haemopoietic progenitor mobilisation. Administration of appropriate high-dose chemotherapy followed by re-infusion of haemopoietic progenitor cells capable of long-term reconstitution has long had a place in the treatment of a number of malignant (largely haematological) and non-malignant diseases. For many years these progenitor cells were obtained by direct aspiration of bone marrow under general anaesthetic, hence the term bone marrow transplantation. However, it has also been recognized that haemopoietic stem cells may be recovered from peripheral blood, albeit in low numbers, and also from umbilical cord blood. Further empirical observations showed that the number of haemopoietic progenitors circulating in the blood could be transiently augmented after chemotherapy and / or administration of one or more of a number of cytokines. Refinements to the clinical practice of progenitor mobilisation, collection and enumeration have proved very successful such that in many cases peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) have largely replaced bone marrow as the preferred source.
Keywords: cytokines, haemopoietic progenitor mobilisation, Peripheral blood stem cells(pbsc), daniplestim, myelopoietin, promegapoietin, progenipoietin, Interleukin-8, growth factor receptor agonists
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