Okadaic Acid: The Archetypal Serine / Threonine Protein Phosphatase Inhibitor
A. B. Dounay and C. J. Forsyth
Pages 1939-1980 (42)
As the first recognized member of the “okadaic acid class” of phosphatase inhibitors, the marine natural product okadaic acid is perhaps the most well-known member of a diverse array of secondary metabolites that have emerged as valuable probes for studying the roles of various cellular protein serine / threonine phosphatases. This review provides a historical perspective on the role that okadaic acid has played in stimulating a broad spectrum of modern scientific research as a result of the natural products ability to bind to and inhibit important classes of protein serine / threonine phosphatases. The relationships between the structure and biological activities of okadaic acid are briefly reviewed, as well as the structural information regarding the particular cellular receptors protein phosphatases 1 (PP1) and 2A. Laboratory syntheses of okadaic acid and its analogs are thoroughly reviewed. Finally, an interpretation of the critical contacts observed between okadaic acid and PP1 by X-ray crystallography is provided, and specific molecular recognition hypotheses that are testable via the synthesis and assay of non-natural analogs of okadaic acid are suggested.
Okadaic Acid, threonine phosphatases, crystallography
Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 55455, USA