The 5-HT1A receptor has been extensively studied over the last two decades. There is a plethora of information describing its anatomical, physiological and biochemical roles in the brain. In addition, the development of selective pharmacological tools coupled with our understanding of psychiatric pathology has lead to multiple hypotheses for the therapeutic utility of 5-HT1A agents and in particular 5-HT1A receptor antagonists. Over the last decade it has been suggested that 5-HT1A receptor antagonists may have therapeutic utility in such diseases as depression, anxiety, drug and nicotine withdrawal as well as schizophrenia. However, a very compelling rationale has been developed for the therapeutic potential of 5-HT1A receptor antagonists in Alzheimers disease and potentially other diseases with associated cognitive dysfunction. Receptor blockade by a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist appears to enhance activation and signaling through heterosynaptic neuronal circuits known to be involved in cognitive p rocesses and, as such, represents a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimers disease and potentially other disorders with underlying cognitive dysfunction.