Non-Nucleoside HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase (RT) Inhibitors: Past, Present, and Future Perspectives
Giuseppe Campiani, Anna Ramunno, Giovanni Maga, Vito Nacci, Caterina Fattorusso, Bruno Catalanotti, Elena Morelli and Ettore Novellino
Affiliation: Dipartimento Farmaco ChimicoTecnologico, Universita degli Studi di Siena, via Aldo Moro, 53100 Siena,Italy.
Keywords: Non-nucleoside hiv-1 reverse transcriptase (rt) inhibitors, Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors(nrtis), Protease inhibitors(pls), hept, Tsao-t, Tsao-t analogues, Dabo antiviral agents, Dihydroalkoxybenzyloxypyrimidines(dabo), Benzodiazepinones(tibo)
Along with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and protease inhibitors (PIs), nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) have gained a definitive and important place in the treatment of HIV-1 infections, and are in rapid development. These compounds can be grouped into two classes: the first generation NNRTIs, mainly discovered by random screening, and the second generation NNRTIs, developed as a result of comprehensive strategies involving molecular modelling, rationale-based drug synthesis, biological and pharmacokinetic evaluations. The recent boom of NNRTIs is mainly due to their antiviral potency, high specificity and low toxicity. The rapid emergence of drug-resistant HIV-1 strains induced by the first generation drugs is a disadvantage bypassed, in part, by the broad spectrum second generation NNRTIs. Starting from the first generation, this review will focus on the second generation NNRTIs dealing with the recent and most interesting published results, highlighting the guidelines for the development of a third generation of NNRTIs.
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