Protozoan parasites are responsible for important diseases that threaten the lives of nearly one-quarter of the human population world-wide. Among them, leishmaniasis has become the second cause of death, mainly due to the emergence of parasite resistance to conventional drugs. P-glycoprotein (Pgp)-like transporters overexpression is a very efficient mechanism to reduce the intracellular accumulation of many drugs in cancer cells and parasitic protozoans including Plasmodium and Leishmania, thus conferring a multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype. Therefore, there is a great clinical interest in developing inhibitors of these transporters to overcome such a resistance. Pgps are active pumps belonging to the ATPbinding cassette (ABC) superfamily of proteins, and consist of two homologous halves, each containing a transmembrane domain (TMD) involved in drug efflux, and a cytosolic nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) responsible for ATP binding and hydrolysis. Most conventional cancer MDR modulators interact with the drug-binding sites on the TMDs of Pgps, but they are also usually transported and the required concentrations for a permanent inhibition produce subsequent sideeffects that hamper their clinical use. Besides, they only poorly modulate the resistance in protozoan parasites. We review here a rational strategy developed to overcome the MDR phenotype in Leishmania, co nsisting in: i) the selection of an MDR Leishmania tropica line that overexpresses a Pgp-like transporter, ii) the use of their cytosolic NBDs as new pharmacological targets, iii) the search of new natural compounds that revert the MDR phenotype in Leishmania bybinding to the TMDs, iv) the combination of subdoses of the above selected modulators directed to both targets in the transporter, NBDs and TMDs, to accumulate their reversal effects while diminishing their toxicity. In this way, we have reverted the MDR phenotype in Leishmania, including the resistance to the most promising new antileishmania agents, the alkyl-lysophospholipids. This approach might be extrapolated to be used in other eukaryotic cells.
Multidrug Resistance, P-Glycoprotein, leishmaniasis, alkyl-lysophospholipids
Instituto de Parasitologia yBiomedicina, Lopez-Neyra, Consejo Superior de InvestigacionesCientificas, c / Ventanilla 11, 18001-Granada, Spain