The FRK / RAK-SHB Signaling Cascade: A Versatile Signal- Transduction Pathway that Regulates Cell Survival, Differentiation and Proliferation
Cecilia Anneren, Cecilia K. Lindholm, Vitezslav Kriz and Michael Welsh
Affiliation: Department of Medical Cell Biology, Husargatan 3, 75237, Uppsala, Sweden.
Recent experiments have unravelled novel signal transduction pathways that involve the SRC homology 2 (SH2) domain adapter protein SHB. SHB is ubiquitously expressed and contains proline rich motifs, a phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain, tyrosine phosphorylation sites and an SH2 domain and serves a role in generating signaling complexes in response to tyrosine kinase activation. SHB mediates certain responses in platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor-, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor-, neural growth factor (NGF) receptor TRKA-, T cell receptor-, interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor- and focal adhesion kinase- (FAK) signaling. Upstream of SHB in some cells lies the SRC-like FYN-Related Kinase FRK / RAK (also named BSK / IYK or GTK). FRK / RAK and SHB exert similar effects when overexpressed in rat phaeochromocytoma (PC12) and β-cells, where they both induce PC12 cell differentiation and β-cell proliferation. Furthermore, β-cell apoptosis is augmented by these proteins under conditions that cause β-cell degeneration. The FRK / RAK-SHB responses involve FAK and insulin receptor substrates (IRS) -1 and -2. Besides regulating apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation, SHB is also a component of the T cell receptor (TCR) signaling response. In Jurkat T cells, SHB links several signaling components with the TCR and is thus required for IL-2 production. In endothelial cells, SHB both promotes apoptosis under conditions that are anti-angiogenic, but is also required for proper mitogenicity, spreading and tubular morphogenesis. In embryonic stem cells, dominant-negative SHB (R522K) prevents early cavitation of embryoid bodies and reduces differentiation to cells expressing albumin, amylase, insulin and glucagon, suggesting a role of SHB in development. In summary, SHB is a versatile signal transduction molecule that produces diverse biological responses in different cell types under various conditions. SHB operates downstream of GTK in cells that express this kinase.
Keywords: signal-transduction pathway, proliferation, src homology 2, sh2 domain adapter protein
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