ADP Receptors-Targets for Developing Antithrombotic Agents
Satya P. Kunapuli, Zhongren Ding, Robert T. Dorsam, Soochong Kim, Swaminathan Murugappan and Todd M. Quinton
Affiliation: Temple University Medical School, Department of Physiology, Rm. 224OMS, 3420 North Broad Street,Philadelphia PA 19140 USA.
Platelet P2 receptors-P2Y1, P2Y12, and P2X1-constitute the means by which adenine nucleotides can activate platelets. Coactivation of the Gαq-coupled P2Y1 and Gαi2-coupled P2Y12 receptors is necessary for ADPmediated platelet activation, which forms the basis of using P2 antagonists as antithrombotic drugs. P2Y1 receptor antagonists inhibit platelet activation, while P2Y1 knockout mice show longer bleeding times than normal mice but few other problems; however, its ubiquitous expression in other tissues renders P2Y1 questionable as an antithrombotic target. The P2Y12 receptor is expressed nearly exclusively in platelets and brain, making it an attractive antithrombotic target. Antagonists for the P2Y12 receptor have been developed that either require metabolic activation to covalently inhibit P2Y12 and are irreversible, or simply are competitive in nature and thus reversible. Ticlopidine and clopidogrel are irreversible P2Y12 antagonists and have been repeatedly proven as clinical antithrombotic agents. In addition, a recently reported P2Y12 antagonist, CS-747, shows promise as a future antithrombotic drug. The AR-C series of compounds represent reversible P2Y12 antagonists and have been used extensively to characterize the function of P2Y12 in platelets. Clinical studies show that AR-C69931MX is as effective as clopidogrel; furthermore, the combination of AR-C69931MX (cangrelor) and clopidogrel confers greater antagonism of P2Y12 than either antagonist alone. The P2X1 receptor is a calcium channel that functions to potentiate agonist-induced platelet shape change, and its inhibition or loss has little if any effect on hemostasis. A combination of P2Y1 and P2Y12 antagonists may represent an additional course of antithrombotic treatment.
Keywords: platelets, p2x1 receptor, p2y1 receptor, p2y12 receptor, adp receptor, platelet aggregation
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