Cancer and Phase II Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes

Author(s): S. A. Sheweita, A. K. Tilmisany.

Journal Name: Current Drug Metabolism

Volume 4 , Issue 1 , 2003


Abstract:

Cancer development results from the interaction between genetic factors, the environment, and dietary factors have been identified as modulators of carcinogenesis process. The formation of DNA adducts is recognized as the initial step in chemical carcinogenesis. Accordingly, blocking DNA adducts formation would be the first line of defense against cancer caused by carcinogens. Glutathione-S-transferases inactivate chemical carcinogens into less toxic or inactive metabolite through reduction of DNA adducts formation. There are many different types of glutathione S-transferase isozymes. For example, GSTπ serves as a marker for hepatotoxicity in rodent system, and also plays an important role in carcinogen detoxification. Therefore, inhibition of GST activity might potentiate the deleterious effects of many environmental toxicants and carcinogens. In addition, approximately half of the population lacks GST Mu expression. Epidemiological evidence showed that persons possessing this genotype are predisposed to a number of cancers including breast, prostate, liver and colon cancers. In addition, individual risk of cancer depends on the frequency of mutational events in target oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes which could lead to loss of chromosomal materials and tumor progression. The most frequent genetic alteration in a variety of human malignant tumors is the mutation of the coding sequence of the p53 tumor suppressor gene. O6-alkylguanine in DNA leads to very high rates of G:C®A:T transitions in p53 gene. These alterations will modulate the expression of p53 gene and consequently change DNA repair, cell division, and cell death by apoptosis. Also, changes in the expression of BcI-2 gene results in extended viability of cells by overriding programmed cell death (apoptosis) induced under various conditions. The prolonged life-span increases the risk of acquiring genetic changes resulting in malignant transformation. In addition, a huge variety of food ingredients have been shown to affect cell proliferation rates. They, therefore, may either reduce or increase the risk of cancer development and progression. For example, it has been found that a high intake of dietary fat accelerates the development of breast cancer in animal models. Certain diets have been suggested to act as tumor promoters also in other types of cancer such as colon cancer, where high intake of fat and phosphate have been linked to colonic hyper-proliferation and colon cancer development. Different factors such as oncogenes, aromatic amines, alkylating agents, and diet have a significant role in cancer induction. Determination of glutathione S-transferase isozymes in plasma or serum could be used as a biomarker for cancer in different organs and could give an early detection.

Keywords: phase II drug metabolism, cancer induction, phase II enzymes, phase II metabolism

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Article Details

VOLUME: 4
ISSUE: 1
Year: 2003
Page: [45 - 58]
Pages: 14
DOI: 10.2174/1389200033336919

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