In recent years, the simple paradigm of adipose tissue as merely a fat store is rapidly evolving into a complex paradigm of this tissue as multipotential secretory organ, partitioned into a few large depots, including visceral and subcutaneous location, and many small depots, associated with a variety of organs in the human body. The major secretory compartment of adipose tissue consists of adipocytes, fibroblasts, and mast cells. These cells, using endocrine, paracrine and autocrine pathways, secrete multiple bioactive molecules, conceptualized as adipokines or adipocytokines. This review examines current information in adipobiology of various diseases besides obesity and related diseases such as type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Finally, we emphasize the possibilities for adipokine-targeted pharmacology in adiponectin (Acrp30, apM1, AdipoQ, GBP28), angiotensin II, estrogens, nerve growth factor, tumor necrosis factor-a, and also adipose mast cells.