The relationship between urinary infections and stone formation has been recognized since antiquity and it has been over a century since bacterial degradation of urea was postulated to cause struvite stones. Specific therapy for urease-producing bacteria, such as urease-inhibitors and antibiotics, has allowed for treatment for this subset of urinary stones. Future directions for research include development of novel urease-inhibitors and chemicals to enhance the protective glycosaminoglycan layer. An improved understanding of the pathogenesis of calcium-based stones has led to the discovery of potential roles for nanobacteria and Oxalobacter formingenes. Methods of altering intestinal regulation of oxalate by reintroduction of lactic acid bacteria may significantly impact the treatment of calcium oxalate stones. The use of catheters, both urethral and ureteral, is common in the urinary tract and is associated with significant morbidity, primarily from associated infections. Catheters to prevent bacterial colonization and formation of biofilms have been created using various coatings, including ciprofloxacin, hydrogel, and silver. Use of these types of catheters may minimize infections and encrustation inherent with their placement in the urinary tract.
Keywords: urinary stone disease, urinary infections, urease-producing bacteria, nanobacteria, oxalobacter formingenes, ciprofloxacin
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