Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder associated with structural and functional alteration of various organ systems including the central nervous system. The overall evidence suggests that the effect of Diabetes mellitus on the brain, although more subtle than some other chronic diabetic complications, is appreciable. A variety of pathogenetic mechanisms contribute to the central nervous system dysfunction in diabetic patient population. One major contributor is the Diabetes related alterations in the function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). These alterations can be found in both barrier and transport components of the BBB function and can be attributed to changes in physicochemical properties of the endothelial cell membranes and of the tight junctions of the cerebral microvasculature. The present communication briefly reviews the Diabetes-related changes in the central nervous system and discusses some of the mechanisms underlying these changes.
Keywords: Blood- brain barrier, Cognition, Diabetes, Diabetes complication, Hyperglycemia, Central nervous system
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