The repair of musculoskeletal tissues has posed a constant challenge for orthopaedic surgeons, and the occurrence of bone and cartilage injuries is expected to increase with the aging of the world population. To overcome the limitations of current treatments, tissue engineering enhanced through gene therapy is garnering significant interest as a promising new alternative. This paper reviews the essential factors involved in tissue engineering, including the appropriate cell source, inductive agents, scaffolds, and mechanical stimulation. Particular emphasis is placed on the use of muscle-derived stem cells that can be genetically engineered to deliver growth factors to the site of injury and initiate the formation of new bone and cartilage. These same gene-carrying cells may also serve as a source of progenitor cells for bone and cartilage formation, making muscle-based gene therapy and tissue engineering a potential treatment for cartilage and bone defects.
Keywords: tissue engineering, gene therapy, mdsc, bone, cartilage, bmps
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