Radiolabeled compounds are excellent investigative tools and widely used to carry out ADME studies during drug discovery and development stages. The most commonly used radioisotopes are 14C and 3H. 3H materials are generally easier to synthesize than 14C materials. Therefore, a variety of probes and substrates used in in vitro assays are labeled with 3H. Since synthesis of 14C material requires intensive resources, it is usually not available until after a molecule is considered for potential development or after the molecule enters the development phase. Improvement in the technology in radiochemistry has enabled the use of radiolabeled compounds earlier in pre-clinical and clinical development to address mechanistic issues. For in vitro studies, radiolabeled probes are utilized to test affinity with various transporters, to perform metabolism comparison among species and to assess possible formation of reactive metabolites. For in vivo studies, radiolabeled compounds are employed to identify and elucidate metabolites formed, to investigate the extent of absorption, bioavailability, tissue distribution, mass balance, routes of excretion, and pre-systemic metabolism. Due to the significant impact of radiolabeled studies on drug development, these studies will be performed earlier than have been in the past and will continue to be an integral part of drug discovery and development.
Keywords: radiolabeled, metabolite profiling, covalent binding, mass balance, absorption, bioavailability, tissue distribution
Rights & PermissionsPrintExport